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Negotiation & Counselling Maximize

Negotiation & Counselling

Santosh Sharma & Shivi Saxena

ISBN – 9789351634768

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UPTU2015/MBA/4/02

160.00 Rs

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MBA Uttar Pradesh Technical University (UPTU), Fourth Semester
Syllabus
 
NMBA HR 03: NEGOTIATION & COUNSELLING
 
Maximum Hours: 40
 
Unit-I                                                                                                                                    (06 Sessions)
Negotiation: Nature, Characteristics, Strategy and Tactics of Distributive Bargaining, Strategy and Tactics of Integrative Negotiation; Strategy and Planning for Negotiation.
 
Unit-II                                                                                                                                   (06 Sessions)
Negotiation Sub Processes: Perception, Cognition and Emotion Communication: What is Communicated during Negotiation and how People Communicate in Negotiation.
 
Unit-III                                                                                                                                 (08 Sessions)
Best Practices in Negotiation – Fundamental Structure of negotiation and BATNA. Case I - Role Negotiation at Bokaro Steel Plant (Understanding Organisational Behaviour. By Udai Pareek,Oxford, Second Edition Page 410-415).
 
Unit-IV                                                                                                                                 (10 Sessions)
International and Cross Cultural Negotiation: Context and Concept, Influence of Culture on Negotiation: Case II - The Dabhol Debacle ( Negotiation Made Simple, SL Rao, Excel Books pp.30-35 and pp. 196-197).
 
Unit-V                                                                                                                                   (10 Sessions)
Emergence & Growth of Counselling: Factors contributing to the emergence, Approaches to Counselling: Behaviouristic, Humanistic Approaches and Rogers Self Theory Counselling Process : Steps in Counselling Process. Modern Trends in Counselling – Trends, Role of a Counsellor and Model of Conselling.
Unit 1: Negotiation
1.1.         Negotiation
10
1.1.1.      Meaning and Definition of Negotiation
10
1.1.2.      Nature/Characteristics of Negotiation
10
1.1.3.      Myths Related to Negotiation
11
1.1.4.      Elements of Negotiation
12
1.1.4.1.   Interdependence
12
1.1.4.2.   Mutual Adjustment
13
1.1.4.3.   Value Claiming and Value Creation
13
1.1.4.4.   Managing Conflict
14
1.1.5.      Principles of Negotiation
15
1.1.6.      Process of Negotiation
17
1.1.6.1.   Planning and Preparing to Negotiate (Pre-      Negotiation Phase)
18
1.1.6.2.   Meeting Phase
19
1.1.6.3.   Post-Negotiation Phase
20
1.1.7.      Factors Influencing Negotiation Process
22
1.1.8.      Seven Pillars of Negotiational Wisdom
23
1.1.9.      PRAM Model of Negotiation
24
1.1.10.    Negotiation Skills
25
1.1.11.    Personality Traits of Good Negotiators
27
1.1.12.    Importance of Negotiation
28
1.1.13.    Issues in Negotiation
28
1.1.14.    Approaches/Types of Negotiation
30
1.2.         Distributive Negotiation
30
1.2.1.      Meaning of Distributive Negotiation
30
1.2.2.      Approaches of Distributive Negotiation
30
1.2.3.      Process of Distributive Negotiation
31
1.2.4.      Importance of Distributive Negotiation
31
1.2.5.      Strategy and Tactics of Distributive                Bargaining
31
1.2.5.1.   Target Points, Resistance Points and               Opening Bids
32
1.2.5.2.   Role of Alternatives to a Negotiated               Agreement
32
1.2.5.3.   Settlement Point
32
1.2.5.4.   Bargaining Mix
32
1.2.5.5.   Fundamental Strategies
33
1.2.6.      Tactical Tasks/Considerations of    Distributive Negotiation
33
1.2.7.      Positions Taken During Negotiation
36
1.2.8.      Commitment
38
1.2.8.1.   Tactical Considerations in Using      Commitments
38
1.2.8.2.   Establishing a Commitment
38
1.2.8.3.   Preventing the Other Party from       Committing Prematurely
39
1.2.8.4.   Finding Ways to Abandon a Committed        Position
39
1.2.9.      Closing the Deal in Distributive         Negotiation
40
1.2.10.    Hardball Tactics of Distributive       Negotiation
41
1.2.10.1.                Dealing with Typical Hardball Tactics
41
1.2.10.2.                Typical Hardball Tactics
41
1.3.         Integrative Negotiation
44
1.3.1.      Meaning of Integrative Negotiation
44
1.3.2.      Features of Integrative Negotiation
44
1.3.3.      Approaches of Integrative Negotiation
44
1.3.4.      Principles of Integrative Negotiation
45
1.3.5.      Importance of Integrative Negotiation
46
1.3.6.      Strategy and Tactics of Integrative                 Negotiation
47
1.3.7.      Factors in Integrative Negotiation Process
47
1.3.8.      Key Steps in the Integrative Negotiation        Process
48
1.3.8.1.   Identify and Define the Problem
49
1.3.8.2.   Understand the Problem Fully-Identify          Interests and Needs
49
1.3.8.3.   Generate Alternative Solutions
50
1.3.8.4.   Evaluate and Select Alternatives
51
1.3.9.      Factors That Facilitate Successful   Integrative Negotiation
52
1.3.10.    Difficulties in Achieving Successful                 Integrative Negotiation
53
1.3.11.    Difference between Distributive and               Integrative Negotiation
54
1.4.         Strategy and Planning for Negotiation
54
1.4.1.      Introduction
54
1.4.2.      Relationship between Key Steps in the           Planning Process
54
1.4.2.1.   Goals – Focus that Drives a Negotiation         Strategy
55
1.4.2.2.   Strategy – Overall Plan to Achieve One’s       Goals
55
1.4.2.3.   Planning Process
58
1.4.2.4.   Understanding the Flow of Negotiation:         Stages and Phases
60
1.5.         Exercise
61
 
 
Unit 2: Negotiation Sub-Processes
2.1.         Negotiation Sub-Processes
63
2.1.1.      Introduction
63
2.1.2.      Perception
63
2.1.2.1.   Features of Perception
64
2.1.2.2.   Process of Perception
64
2.1.2.3.   Factors Influencing Perception in     Negotiation
66
2.1.2.4.   Perceptual Distortion
66
2.1.2.5.   Importance of Perception
68
2.1.2.6.   Role of Perception in Negotiation
68
2.1.3.      Framing
68
2.1.3.1.   Concept of Frames
69
2.1.3.2.   Types of Frames
69
2.1.3.3.   Working of Frames in Negotiation
70
2.1.3.4.   Approach to Frames
70
2.1.3.5.   Frame of an Issue Changes as the   Negotiation Evolves
71
2.1.3.6.   Importance of Frames
72
2.1.3.7.   Re-Framing
72
2.1.3.8.   Frame Analysis and Re-Framing as                 Conflict Management Tools
73
2.1.4.      Cognition
74
2.1.4.1.   Cognitive Biases in Negotiation
74
2.1.4.2.   Managing Misperceptions and Cognitive       Biases in Negotiation
77
2.1.5.      Emotion, Mood and Negotiation
77
2.1.5.1.   Nature of Emotions
77
2.1.5.2.   Purpose of Emotions
78
2.1.5.3.   Components of Emotions
78
2.1.5.4.   Expression and Control
78
2.1.5.5.   Effect of Emotions and Moods on Negotiation
79
2.1.5.6.   Significance of Mood and Emotions in          Organisations
80
2.1.5.7.   Managing Strong Emotions
81
2.1.5.8.   Strategic Use of Emotion in Negotiation
81
2.2.         Communication
83
2.2.1.      Meaning & Definition of Communication
83
2.2.2.      Nature of Communication
83
2.2.3.      Types of Communication
84
2.2.4.      Role of Communication in Negotiation
85
2.2.5.      Aspects of Communication in Negotiation
86
2.2.5.1.   Verbal Communication
86
2.2.5.2.   Non-Verbal Communication
87
2.2.6.      Basic Model of Communication
88
2.2.7.      Distortions in Communication
89
2.2.8.      What is Communicated during         Negotiation?
89
2.2.9.      Levels of Communication in Negotiation
90
2.2.10.    How People Communicate in Negotiation?
91
2.2.11.    Improving Communication in Negotiation
92
2.2.12.    Special Communication Considerations at    the Close of Negotiations
93
2.2.13.    Importance of Communication
93
2.3.         Negotiation and Power
94
2.3.1.      Meaning and Definition of Power
94
2.3.2.      Nature of Power in Negotiations
95
2.3.3.      Sources of Power
95
2.3.4.      Strategies for Gaining Power
98
2.3.5.      Dealing with Powerful Persons
99
2.3.6.      Use of Power in Negotiation
99
2.4.         Exercise
100
 
 
Unit 3: Best Practices in Negotiation
3.1.         Best Practices in Negotiation
102
3.1.1.      Be Prepared
102
3.1.2.      Diagnose the Fundamental Structure of the Negotiation
102
3.1.3.      Identify and Work the BATNA
102
3.1.4.      Be Willing to Walk Away
103
3.1.5.      Master the Key Paradoxes of Negotiation
103
3.1.6.      Remember the Intangibles
104
3.1.7.      Actively Manage Coalitions
104
3.1.8.      Savour and Protect Your Reputation
105
3.1.9.      Remember that Rationality and Fairness       are Relative
105
3.1.10.    Continue to Learn from Experience
105
3.2.         BATNA
105
3.2.1.      Introduction to BATNA
105
3.2.2.      Elements of BATNA
106
3.2.3.      Determining your BATNA
107
3.2.4.      BATNAs and the Other Side
108
3.2.5.      BATNAs and Role of Third Parties
108
3.2.6.      Changes in BATNA during Negotiations
108
3.2.7.      Importance of BATNA
109
3.3.         Case I - Role Negotiation at Bokaro Steel      Plant
109
3.4.         Exercise
111
 
 
Unit 4: International and Cross-Cultural Negotiation
4.1.         International & Cross-Cultural Negotiation
113
4.1.1.      Concept of Cross-Cultural Negotiation
113
4.1.2.      Types of Cross-Cultural Negotiation
113
4.1.3.      Framework for Cross-Cultural Negotiation
113
4.1.3.1.   Background Factors
114
4.1.3.2.   Atmosphere
115
4.1.3.3.   Negotiation Process
115
4.1.3.4.   Cultural Factors
116
4.1.3.5.   Strategic Factors
117
4.1.4.      Context of International Negotiation
117
4.1.4.1.   Environmental Context
118
4.1.4.2.   Immediate Context
119
4.1.5.      Conceptualising Culture and International    Negotiation
120
4.1.5.1.   Dimensions of Culture
121
4.1.5.2.   Shalom Schwartz Model
122
4.1.6.      Prerequisites of Cross-Cultural          Negotiation
123
4.1.7.      Factors Influencing Cross-Cultural Negotiations
123
4.1.8.      Influence of Culture on Negotiation
124
4.1.8.1.   Influence of Culture on Negotiation:              Managerial Perspectives
125
4.1.8.2.   Influence of Culture on Negotiation:              Research Perspectives
126
4.1.9.      Consideration in Cross-Cultural       Negotiation
127
4.1.10.    Culturally Responsive Negotiation Strategies
127
4.1.10.1.                Strategic Options
128
4.1.10.2.                Weiss Strategic Framework
128
4.2.         Case II
129
4.2.1.      Dabhol Debacle
129
4.2.2.      Great Indian Investment Movie
133
4.3.         Exercise
134
 
 
Unit 5: Counselling
5.1.         Counselling
136
5.1.1.      Meaning and Definition of Counselling
136
5.1.2.      Characteristics of Counselling
136
5.1.3.      Need for Counselling
137
5.1.4.      Emergence and Growth of Counselling
138
5.1.4.1.   Factors Contributing to Emergence of            Counselling
138
5.1.4.2.   Factors Contributing to Growth of   Counselling
138
5.1.4.3.   Historical Development of Counselling
139
5.1.5.      Goals of Counselling
139
5.1.6.      Levels of Counselling
140
5.1.7.      Participants in Counselling
140
5.1.8.      Principles of Counselling
141
5.1.9.      Guidelines for Effective Counselling
142
5.1.10.    Counsellor
143
5.1.10.1.                Who may be a Counsellor?
143
5.1.10.2.                Qualities of a Counsellor
143
5.1.11.    Counselling Skills
144
5.1.12.    Organisational Application of Counselling
145
5.1.13.    Barriers in Counselling
148
5.1.14.    Difference between Counselling and               Mentoring
149
5.2.         Approaches to Counselling
149
5.2.1.      Behaviouristic Approach
149
5.2.1.1.   Basic Principles of Behaviouristic    Approach
150
5.2.1.2.   Techniques Used in Behaviouristic Approach
150
5.2.1.3.   Advantages of Behaviouristic Approach
151
5.2.1.4.   Disadvantages of Behaviouristic Approach
152
5.2.2.      Humanistic Approaches
152
5.2.2.1.   Rogers’ Self Theory
152
5.2.2.2.   Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy
155
5.2.2.3.   Gestalt Counselling
155
5.2.2.4.   Transactional Analysis (TA)
156
5.2.2.5.   Difference between Behaviouristic and          Humanistic Approach
159
5.2.3.      Directive/Authoritarian/Psychoanalytic         Approach
159
5.2.3.1.   Steps in Directive Approach
160
5.2.3.2.   Advantages of Directive Approach
161
5.2.3.3.   Disadvantages of Directive Approach
161
5.2.3.4.   Directive vs. Non-Directive Counselling
161
5.2.4.      Eclectic Approach
162
5.2.4.1.   Assumptions of Eclectic Approach
162
5.2.4.2.   Limitations of Eclectic Approach
162
5.2.5.      Existential Approach
163
5.2.5.1.   Basic Assumptions of Existential     Approach
164
5.2.5.2.   Advantages of Existential Approach
165
5.2.5.3.   Disadvantages of Existential Approach
165
5.3.         Counselling Process
166
5.3.1.      Introduction
166
5.3.2.      Essential Elements of Counselling Process
166
5.3.3.      Steps in Counselling Process
166
5.3.4.      Factors Affecting Counselling Process
167
5.4.         Evaluation of Counselling
169
5.4.1.      Meaning and Definition of Evaluation
169
5.4.2.      Goals of Evaluation
169
5.4.3.      Procedure for Evaluation
169
5.4.4.      Approaches/Methods of Evaluation
170
5.4.5.      Problems of Evaluation
171
5.5.         Modern Trends in Counselling
172
5.5.1.      Introduction
172
5.5.2.      Trends in Counselling
172
5.5.3.      Role of a Counsellor
173
5.5.4.      Model of Counselling
174
5.6.         Exercise
175
 
 
Case Studies
176
Unsolved Papers
182
Solved Paper (2010-11)
184
Solved Paper (2011-12)
197
Solved Paper (2012-13)
209
Solved Paper (2013-14)
221
Classification
235

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Negotiation & Counselling

Negotiation & Counselling

Santosh Sharma & Shivi Saxena

ISBN – 9789351634768

Write your review